1. What are the pros and cons of off-cycle elections? Why is turnout lower in off-cycle elections?
Is the effect on turnout homogeneous for all citizens or are there winners and losers from this institution?
What kinds of policies are more likely to be enacted in the presence of off-cycle elections? How does Anzia (2011) test this theory? What does she find?
2. How does the choice between district and at-large elections affect the equity/efficiency trade-off? What are example of public goods with concentrated costs and diffuse benefits?
How do district elections affect i) the interests of underrepresented groups and ii) the provision of public goods with concentrated costs and diffuse benefits? Why? How do
Hankison and Magazinik (2019) test this theory? What do they find?