UCI Political Science Questions

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Please make sure that you are familiar with LIBERALIST and the problem between China and Hongkong. 800-1000 words in total, due today 23:59pm PST.

Textbook for u to better understand this assignment: ebook: https://zh.b-ok.cc/ireader/12002323

This work is important so please do your best to satisfy the requirements.

Consider the following event:

A little over two years ago China passed a “national security” law that limited Hong Kong’s political freedoms and changed its domestic and foreign policy in the long run. The law was drafted and promulgated in Beijing and it criminalized acts of secession, the subversion of state power, terrorism and “collusion with foreign or external forces to endanger national security.” This wording of the new law clearly violated the provisions of the 1997 agreement on the British handover of Hong Kong to China, which defined the former dependent territory of the Crown as a special administrative region of the PRC with its own independent, executive, legislative and judiciary branches. The British expectation built into the agreement that Hong Kong and the PRC would exist as one state with two political systems at least for the duration of the specified fifty-year period, did not materialize. In response to Beijing’s new law, the European Union has called its members to bring China before the International Court of Justice.

The following is a brief explanation of this event from the perspective of the realist school of thought in International Relations.

China’s national security law for Hong Kong may be unacceptable from a moral or legal point of view but it reflects the PRC’s ability to demonstrate the preponderance of its own power in East Asia. After almost two centuries of its “humiliation” by external powers (by which the Chinese leadership means colonial intervention of European powers and Japan in their country’s internal affairs), China is in a position to reassert its historical status of a regional hegemon and restore its informal title of the “Middle Kingdom.” Since the early 1980s, the PRC has experienced an unprecedented economic growth, becoming the largest economy in the world according to several key measures. As the theory would predict, China has been gradually converting its economic strength into military power and political influence (the process that started in the early 2000 and has been helped at least in part by the U.S. misadventures in Afghanistan and Iraq). China has been in the process of consolidating its defense, securing its borders, and projecting its power into the South and East China Seas. Its current military strength is such that it guarantees Beijing the ability to defend its long coastal line from any external attack and, according to American military’s computerized war gaming scenarios, defeat any challenger (most likely the U.S. by itself or in concert with some regional powers) in a potential war over Taiwan. Whatever Beijing’s domestic political interests may be for imposing the national security law on Hong Kong, its newly acquired military capabilities allowed it to do so unchallenged. True, the U.S. (the E.U. and the U.K) have been hardly hit by the COVID-19 pandemic, and its foreign policy response has been relatively weak as a result, but Washington (much less the U.K. and/or others) would have been unable to stop China even in the absence of the highly contagious virus.

Your task is to EXPLAIN this same event (the passing of the “national security law” in Hong Kong) from a liberalist perspective in international relations introduced in this class and then suggest which of the two perspectives, in your estimate, is more adequate (“better”) in explaining China’s behavior in the event (the total of 750-1000 words).

In addressing the prompt, I would like you to focus on the liberalist theoretical explanation rather than on simple factual account of the event.

Regardless of how strong opinion you may hold on specific issues in international affairs, you should provide an explanation of WHY China behaved the way it did based on each of the two theoretical frameworks rather than describe HOW it behaved.

In order to provide an informed answer you are welcome to consult and reference news sources, but I strongly discourage the use of direct quotes in your essay.

Lifting portions of the text from various online or offline sources without appropriate citation will be regarded as plagiarism and will be penalized!

Your essay will be evaluated according to the points breakdown indicated below.


50 points – detailed discussion of liberalist perspective

30 points – comparison of the competing perspectives


10 points – spelling/grammar/readability

10 points – overall organization

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