Texas Southern University African Americans and Other Minorities Essay

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Students must prepare a short essay (two paragraphs, minimum, one paragraph per question) discussing some aspects of the chapter readings. Discussion Boards must be submitted on or before 11:59 pm on the due date.

Read Chapter 6, and define public opinion and identify at least two ways that it affects government actions.

Public opinion is defined as the aggregate of individual attitudes or beliefs shared by some portion of the adult population. A consensus exists when a large proportion of the public appears to express the same view on an issue. Divisive opinion exists when the public holds widely different attitudes on an issue. Sometimes, a poll shows a distribution of opinion, indicating that most people either have no information about an issue or are not interested enough in the issue to form a position on it. Public opinion affects government actions by providing support for elected officials to adopt or fail to adopt policies. Public opinion can limit government activity if officials are unclear about the direction a majority of Americans support or if opinion is divided and the safest course of action is no action at all.

People’s opinions are formed through the political socialization process. Important factors in this process are the family, educational experiences, peer groups, opinion leaders, the media, and political events. The influence of the media as a socialization factor may be growing relative to the family. Voting behavior is influenced by demographic factors such as education, economic status, religion, race and ethnicity, gender, and region. It is also influenced by election-specific factors such as party identification, perception of the candidates, and issue preferences.

Public opinion also plays an important role in domestic and foreign policy making. Although polling data show that a majority of Americans would like policy leaders to be influenced to a great extent by public opinion, politicians cannot always be guided by opinion polls. This is because the respondents often do not understand the costs and consequences of policy decisions or the trade-offs involved in making such decisions. Similarly, the actions of U.S. government officials can be encouraged or constrained by world opinion.

Write well thought-out and developed paragraphs to answer the questions below, one paragraph per question Be specific. Each post should be at least one well-developed paragraph (approximately 6-10 sentences or more, unless otherwise indicated). There are no makeups for missed Discussion Board assignments. Use correct spelling, punctuation, and grammar.

Then, respond to at least one of your classmates asking a probing question about their post or providing a post that may add additional information to what they wrote.

  1. Summarize what Chapter 6 says about public opinion about government. Do you see our government in a negative or positive light and why?
  2. What is public opinion and how is it measured? How accurate are polls and what are some of the problems with polls?
  3. How much of your political views have been shaped by your family and friends?

Students must prepare a short essay (two paragraphs, minimum, one paragraph per question) discussing some aspects of the chapter readings. Discussion Boards must be submitted on or before 11:59 pm on the due date.

Read Chapter 5, and assess the limits of state and federal law in guaranteeing equality to all people.

The Voting Rights Act of 1965 outlawed discriminatory voter-registration tests and authorized federal registration of persons and federally administered procedures in any state or political subdivision evidencing electoral discrimination or low registration rates. The Voting Rights Act and other protective legislation passed during and since the 1960s apply not only to African Americans, but to other ethnic groups as well. Minorities have been increasingly represented in national and state politics, although they have yet to gain representation proportionate to their numbers in the U.S. population. Lingering social and economic disparities have led to a new civil rights agenda—one focusing less on racial differences and more on economic differences.

In the early history of the United States, women were considered citizens, but by and large they had no political rights because they were largely viewed as dependents. After the first women’s rights convention in 1848, the campaign for suffrage gained momentum, yet not until 1920, when the Nineteenth Amendment was ratified, did women finally obtain the right to vote. The second wave of the women’s movement began in the 1960s, and the National Organization for Women (NOW) was formed in 1966 to bring about complete equality for women in all walks of life. Efforts to secure the ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment failed. Women continue to fight gender discrimination in employment. Federal government efforts to eliminate gender discrimination in the workplace include Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibits, among other things, gender-based discrimination, including sexual harassment on the job. Wage discrimination also continues to be a problem for women, as does the glass ceiling. Women make up just 20 percent of the U.S. Congress.

America has always been a land of immigrants and will continue to be so. Today, more than 1 million immigrants enter the United States each year, and more than 12 percent of the U.S. population consists of foreign-born persons. Demographers estimate that the foreign-born will account for 15 percent of the nation sometime between 2020 and 2025. In particular, the Latino community in the United States has experienced explosive growth. In recent years, undocumented immigration has surfaced as a significant issue for border states and the nation. Indeed, one of the pressing concerns facing today’s politicians at the state and federal level is how U.S. immigration policy should be reformed.

Write well thought-out and developed paragraphs to answer the questions below, one paragraph per question Be specific. Each post should be at least one well-developed paragraph (approximately 6-10 sentences or more, unless otherwise indicated). There are no makeups for missed Discussion Board assignments. Use correct spelling, punctuation, and grammar.

Then, respond to at least one of your classmates asking a probing question about their post or providing a post that may add additional information to what they wrote.

  1. Like African Americans and other minorities, women also have had to make a claim for equality. During the first phase of this campaign, the primary political goal of women was to obtain the right to vote. Who opposed women’s suffrage? What were their reasons? Describe some of the steps that led to the ratification of the 19th Amendment. Who were some of the key women involved in women suffrage?
  2. The issue of illegal immigration has become both a hot political issue and a serious policy concern. As many as 12 million undocumented aliens reside and work in the United States. Immigrants typically come to the United Sates to work, and their labor continues to be in high demand, particularly in construction and farming. Should government provide services to those who enter the country illegally? Should citizenship be extended to illegal immigrants?

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