Post your response to one of the following discussion questions for Module 4, HMP Chapter 6 and Godschalk et al. Chapter 1 (pp. 14-16); Module 5, HMP Chapter 7; and Module 6, HMP Chapter 8. Please note the # of the question for which you comment. Your initial response for each selected question must be at least 250 words. Please add a word count at the end for each response. Cite the weekly readings and other sources, if needed, to support your comment. You also have to comment on one initial response from other students.
Q1: Explain why the United States government has been described as a “patchwork” system, and how this structure may create conflicting goals among local, state, and national agencies.
Q2: What are the differences between the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Act enacted in 1988 and the Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000 with respect to 1) the requirement of mitigation plan-making; 2) the way mitigation is incorporated and promoted in emergency management; and 3) the mitigation grant programs that are open to the states and locals?
Q3: What is NFIP? How does NFIP function as a federally subsidized program for mitigation? Why is it considered as a mitigation program other than a preparedness practice?
Q4: What are the management areas in hazard mitigation where states play a direct role? (Hint: check the Key Issues in the M5 PPT)
Q5: What are the fundamental powers that local governments possess and utilize for growth development in the context of mitigating the impacts of natural hazards? Give each power an example from the local management practice.
Q6: Compare the roles and functions of federal, state, and local governments in managing land use for hazard mitigation purposes. Please be specific when talking about each level of government [e.g., ownership of land, the authority of making land use management regulations, risk management mechanisms (ordinances vs. incentives, vs. risk communication/education), and so on].
Explain why the United States government has been described as a “patchwork” system, and how this structure may create conflicting goals among local, state, and national agencies. Answer:The United States has been labeled as a “patchwork” system because “lack of centralization and high degree of pluralism” (module 4, slide 4). The United States government has too many different programs dedicated to fix and solve the same problem. The division of government and roles in what branch or hierarchy of government is constantly lost. It is very difficult for citizens to express an issue in their community when there maybe too many or no organization to communicate to. This can become very conflicting because work and blame can easily be directed to the wrong areas and possibly never be taken care of because of the lack of divided work, knowledge, and government. Goals for certain areas in a state might cause setbacks in major fixes and repairs after a storm or disaster. These setbacks could be caused by government limitations that have not been made clear. For example, highway damage from a fatal storm could be delayed if local or state government officials don’t know who handles what. This could lead to damage and deterioration of the highway and cause more civil accidents. The United States costant “patchwork” will do more harm than good. Clear guidelines of what level of government handles what problems will diminish this problem and allow work and problems to be settled faster. Whether it is disastrous or not. Patchwork in the United States has been taken to an extreme level and is constantly being overdone. If this continues no major damage will correctly be repaired and can cause harm to citizens in the area.