Please select THREE (3) of the following questions . Please write in a cogent and clear essay format, using strong transitions between paragraphs and themes. Written answers should not exceed two pages per question, Font: 12pt, single-spaced, 1 inch margins, excluding footnotes/endnotes.
The intent of this choice is to allow you to select choices that you feel demonstrate your competence and understanding of that particular topic. Play to your strongest understanding and choose the most appropriate questions based on your interest, comprehension and ability to respond. The expectation will be that you leave no concept, answer or idea unexplained in your analysis. If you use a course term, you need to demonstrate your knowledge of that concept.
All sources must be cited with footnotes/endnotes from original sources. If citing lecture, you must point back to the original source of the data.
- We have explored the idea that homeland security policy is really about two concepts—the US Department of Homeland Security, and the broader “Homeland Security Enterprise” that includes state, federal, local, and private sector partners among others. Within those two concepts are a variety of statements about what the homeland security mission is. In many ways, both the passage of time, and the particular level of government (state, federal, local) practicing “homeland security” have influenced concepts and frustrated a common understanding of the term “homeland security.” For this question, evaluate the following:
- Using the course material, develop your own concept of what homeland security is? Write your own definition, that summarizes your view of what homeland security is up to this point, based on the readings, using citation.
- Explain your definition of homeland security, using no fewer than five concepts of homeland security (e.g. academic sources, government doctrine, and textbook readings) to explain your reasoning. Those may rely upon Bellavita, but not exclusively. Regardless of choice, provide analysis of that choice.
2. The Emergency Management Cycle has been used as a model to help homeland security practitioners evaluate and manage threats. As Emergency Management (EM) as a discipline pre-dates the creation of Homeland Security by about 40 years, EM provides a certain trailblazing approach to how to manage multiple agencies during a crisis. For this question, evaluate the following:
a. Create a hypothetical disaster. Define and evaluate each step of the EM cycle, apply that step against the hypothetical disaster, emergency and/or catastrophe, drawing upon the potential list of hazards discussed in the readings. This response MUST include specific policy, doctrine, agencies, hazards and/or historical examples to highlight your understanding.
3. One of the challenges in coordinating all homeland security management activities is managing our national culture and laws, including the relationship among the people, and their governments. This challenge is rooted in our Constitutional federalism—one people with two sovereigns (the state, and the federal governments respectively). During the course, we have discussed classical notions and sources of federalism and how they impact 21st century Homeland Security policymaking. For this question, evaluate the following:
A.How does federalism affect homeland security and emergency management?
i. Compare and contrast two case studies (from any week thus far), and explain how the concepts of federalism as discussed in the Clovis reading (e.g. coercive, cooperative) impacts how governments respond to disaster or terrorism.
ii. Provide an analysis of the benefits and detriments of the federalism relationship for securing the homeland for each example you choose. Put another way, how does the shared responsibility of homeland security among levels of government help or hurt prevention and response activities?
4. Rephrasing the famous quote from Justice Potter Stewart, do we “know terrorism when we see it?” Over the course of the semester, we have evaluated several concepts of what terrorism is and could be. One challenge, according to Schmid, seems to be that there is no consensus definition in the literature. Moreover, federal law varies on what terrorism is. For this question, evaluate the following:
- Compare and contrast four of those ideas from the readings, including the challenges each of them pose for how to either counter their messages or tactics, or how to arrest individuals who practice terrorism.
5.The evolution of terrorism has mirrored the evolution of social media as a tool to spread information. According to Schmid, this is “terrorism as propaganda.” In a pre-9/11 world, terrorists used to have to send people to radicalize individuals face-to-face. Now, social media provides unlimited means to radicalize people in their own homes. Recent works, like the NCTC indicators, seem to reaffirm the need to minimize the impact of radicalization on “homegrown terrorists.” Using course materials and case studies, answer the following:
- What is a homegrown violent extremist?
- How is a homegrown violent extremist possibly radicalized?
- Evaluate the following: Are the NCTC Mobilization and Radicalization indicators useful in preventing terrorism, or only useful as a tool in hindsight to analyze what has happened. Explain your rationale using the readings