Describe your final three to five (3-5) observations about the success of the agency, highlighting the value of the agency to U.S. citizens

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week 11 and worth 130 points

Your position as the consultant is ending and it is time to submit
your complete report. In this assignment, you will make final changes
for Assignments 2 through 5 and put the sections into one document.
In addition to what you have already completed and compiled for this
portfolio, you should write a two to three (2-3) page conclusion in
which you:

  1. Describe your final three to five (3-5) observations about the
    success of the agency, highlighting the value of the agency to U.S.
    citizens, its success at meeting its goals, and areas where it can
  2. Recommend two or three (2-3) strategies for improvement, providing sound justification for each.
  3. Describe
    your experience in researching the agency and interviewing
    representatives, highlighting the value the project has to your career,
    the positive elements, and the challenges you faced during the process.
  4. Include the required sections with appropriate titles in the portfolio.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

  • Be
    typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with
    one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA
    or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional
  • Include the following sections in the portfolio:
    • Title Page (Cover Page)
      • The
        cover page must contain the title of the assignment, the student’s
        name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date.
    • Table of Contents
    • Assignments 2-5 with specific headers / titles
    • Conclusion
    • Reference Page
    • Appendices

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Recommend ways to improve specific areas of public administration.
  • Analyze
    the fundamental components of effective budgeting, including sources of
    revenue, political influences, purposes, types, and accountability of
    program administrators.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in public administration.
  • Write clearly and concisely about public administration using proper writing mechanics.

Grading for this assignment will be based on answer quality,
logic/organization of the paper, and language and writing skills, using
the following rubric.

Click here to view the grading rubric.

Assignment #2 History
of Environmental Protection Agency

Protection Agency was proposed by President Richard Nixon. In December 2nd
1970, Nixon signed the order that led into the establishing of the E.P.A and it
began its operations in the same year. Its headquarters were at Washington DC and
the Agency is led by an administrator,who is appointed by the President and
approved by the congress.Amongst some of the responsibilities of the EPA, is
the administration of the Clean Air Actof 1970 that was formed to regulate the
air pollution amongst the industries and motor vehicles. Clean Water Act of
1972 regulating discharge of industrial waste waters and treatments of
sewages.E.P.A’s managed to enforce the fixing of catalytic converters in cars
at its earlier ages which led to the reduction in the air pollution by a third
in USA in the year 1970 to 1990.

acts were later on reauthorized, and among those acts are; Clean Water Act in
1987 and clean water act in 1990. Also at this time some other acts were
introduced e.g. the Nuclear Policy Act (1982) and the Energy Star Program of
1992.This agency has its enforcement powers which include suctions and giving
of fines and others.

goals and objectives for its formation were majorly based on reduction of environmental
pollutions. Among other reasons for its formation was to conduct environmental
assessments and check on environmental pollution and the ways to reduce them.
It was also formed to conduct researches which will leads to the breakthrough
of minimization of air pollution. It’s also responsible for the enforcement and
the maintenance of national standards and various environmental laws.Reducing
air pollution to reduce the effects of the greenhouse gases and maintain the
ozone layer. Improving the accessibility of safe and clean water, enhancing
joint preparedness on environmental response, promoting the management of both
materials and wastes and clean sites, and enhancing compliance assurance and
environmental stewardship are part of Environmental protection agency.

design of environmental protection agency

Protection Agency has got different and severaldepartments that are all under
the office of the administrator. This organization helps in the running of the
Agency as a whole by making its operations run smoothly. For better understanding
this departments and the Agency’s design are further analyzed as follows:

the top part of it is the office of the administrator, which gives the
executivethe logistical support for the agency administrator. Also the office
of the administrator provides support to the environmental protection Agency’s
programs and its activities for it to protect the human health and the
environment. Administrator is further sub-divided into the following offices;
office of the children’s health organization, civil right office, office of
congressional and intergovernmental relations, executive services office,
executive secretariat office, homeland security office, policy office, public
affairs office, and science advisory board .

Under the office of the
administrator are the headquarters departments, which include;

I). Department of the
administration and resource management-it provides the national policy,
leadership and management of various important support functions for the

ii). Department of the
air radiation-this office is concerned with the national programs, policies and
regulations, which control air pollution and protection of the radiation,
industrial air pollution, and climate change

iii). Department of
chemical pollution and pollution prevention-it work to prevent the occurrence of
the pollution. This therefore has helped in improving the homes workplaces and
schools by making them clean and healthy and hence becoming safer.

iv). Department of Chief
Financial Officer-this is the department that deals with Agency’s annual
budgeting and performance plan.It also provides agency with the financial
services and it also develop the Agency’s annual accountability report.

v). Department of the
enforcement and compliance assurance-it protects communities which are mostly
affected by the pollution and also goes after pollution problems.

vi). Department of the
environmental information-it is headed by the chief information officer. It
manages the life cycle of the information to support the mission of the agency
which is to protect human health and the environment.

vii). Department of the
general counsel-this is he office that acts as the legal advisor of the
environmental protection agency.

viii). Department of
the inspector general- it helps in the protecting of the environment in a more
efficient and cost effective manner.

ix). Department of the
international and tribal affairs-it identifies environmental problems and helps
in the implementation of the technical and policy options to address those

x). Department of land
emergency management-deals with the emergency response and waste programs in
terms of providing policies guidance and directions.

xi). Department of the
research and development- this is a body that conducts research and helps the
EPA in making major decisions that will help in the safeguarding of the human
health  and the its ecosystem in general
from the environmental pollutants.

xii). Department of
water- this department deals with water. It ensures that the drinking water are
safe and protect human health by maintaining the aquatic ecosystem.

When it comes to the
effectiveness in making major decisions and policies and the provision of the
services to the primary recipients, Environmental Protection Agency aims and
strives at minimizing the risks and maximizing benefits to the society as the
receipt the economy and the environment. In its decision making it recognizes
the society, economy and the environment as a whole. This will help in making
major effective decision that will lead to the maintenance of the environment
from the pollution and also the provision of the services to the recipient.


For the recommendation,
I recommend that those departments which play major roles in the Agency should
be given more emphasis and should be and should be allocated with more
resources for it to improve the effectiveness of its operation and the delivery
of quality and best services in the agency. Also the organizational structure
should be simple and not complicated.

of the organizational design



offices and the assistant department offices

Regional offices

that affect the Agency’s success and its influence on the effectiveness of the
decision making and implementation

protection agency has a competitive market allowances as compared to other entries
existing.This is because it controls large part of the market share, making the
decision making process easy and effective implementation of such decisions.

institutional constraints

is due to the low compliance costs and by giving of the allowances such as
purchase allowances for the pollution control equipment. This reduction in cost
makes the implementation of its decisions easy, leading to its success.

Low transaction costs.
PA has a lower transaction costs this will lead to the effective decision making
and is implementation

that affect the affect the organization in implementation of its policy for the
meeting of its goals and objectives

the organization to implement it decision, it has to consider the changes in
the technology because the more the sophistication of the technology the more
it makes it easy for the implementation of its policies.

groups are inclusive of the citizens, environmental advocacy organizations and
even the citizens.For the organization to implement its policies without affecting
it goals and objective it should consider the interest groups.

Economic conditions
also should be considered when making and implementing the policies or

for the planning and implementation

EPA should
use a more improved technology as part of its technology so as to be up to date
and make it easy to contact the outside world and the conducting of its
researches and interviews.

should always consider the interested groups so as to always not violate any of
the group in their course of its operations.The agency should consider
minimizing on different costs and maximizing on the provision of services. This
will help reduce the operation cost and hence utilizing the resources they have.

Assignment #3 Agency Evaluation 

Administrative Ethics

In the recent past, regarding an agency like International
Consortium of Investigative Journalists several changes have been put in place
with the changing world to improve the administrative functions of various
agencies.  It is the duty of the
administration to perform several functions in an organization. Some of the
functions include staffing, decision-making, file keeping staff motivation,
recruitment among others(Lundgren & McMakin, 2013). With the current
technological changes and ethics in business however, there has been calls to
improve the service delivery among administrators. This has been done through a
number of ways to enhance their functions. The main two are discussed in the
paragraphs below.

has been serious administrative responsibility. This means that the various organizations
have clearly stipulated clear guidelines in the administration of the
organization. This involves dividing the administrative roles in various
departments to enhance the performance. Several managers in charge of various departments
are normally answerable to the overall manager. This helps in easing the work
of the manager as he now manages several subsections and he can now evaluate
which section is failing. Therefore, it is important to employ the best
suitable person to suit a particular department toimprove the overall
performance in the organization. This has been an upcoming trait in management
of the organization toimprove efficiency and accuracy, which had earlier been
diluted, by the prior single management.

implications in business have also been looked at. This has been done in a
number of ways to various key players in the economy. Firstly, there is the
legal implication to stakeholders. Stakeholders include the customers in the
market, the employees, the owners of the industry and the society. On the part
of the customers, it is the responsibility of the organization to make sure
that they avail goods of the required quality and quantity at the required
price(Edwards, 2013). On the employees, it is the duty of the administrative
body to ensure that their workers are paid in time and at good pay. In addition,
they should ensure that their workers enjoy good working conditions when doing
business and make sure that they have good financial benefits after retirement
not forgetting insurance and quality medical cover. On the owners, they should
try to provide transparent information to encourage new investors in the
market. The more transparent an organization is the more likelihood of
attracting more and more investors. Lastly on the part of the society it is the
duty of the administration to protect its clients from pollution, and unethical
practices not forgetting giving back to the society through creation of social
amenities. Secondly, the administration should ensure that the image of the
organization is upheld. This can be done through creating a trademark for the
business and marketing the business through the social media plat forms. Lastly
the organization should develop a listening hear to the grievances agitated by
any stakeholder in the business. This helps greatly in enhancing peaceful
coexistence in the business and among the various stakeholders hence improving
the output in the work.

Leadership Influences

Looking at an agency like International Consortium of
Investigative Journalists, the leadership is mainly vested on educated
personnel in the relevant field. They work hand in hand fulfilling the
interests of the clients, the owners, the government and the society. However, these
agencies suffer from serious political intervention. The political leaders
control the factors of production. Therefore, they largely influence the
performance of this agency. In most cases, they influence the agency negatively
as they seem to advertise according to the wish of the political leaders. In
addition, the owners of the agencies also determine the content being
advertised and vice versa(Trillo, 2015). Therefore, both the owners and the
political leaders largely influence the success of the organization. If
independence could be cultivated, the performance of advertising agencies can
improve drastically.

International Consortium of Investigative Journalists as an
agency is tasked with the task of ensuring that the pollution and transnational
crime networks, and the actions of powerful figures in business and government.
The news media, hobbled by short attention spans and lack of resources, are
even less of a match for those who would harm the public interest. Broadcast
networks and major newspapers have closed foreign bureaus, cut travel budgets,
and disbanded investigative teams. We are losing our eyes and ears around the
world precisely when we need them most. Meanwhile, in many developing
countries, investigative reporters are killed, threatened, or imprisoned with
alarming regularity. Amazingly unbowed by these life-and-death realities,
journalists are in dire need of help from colleagues abroad, many of whom do
similar work and can offer support.

Strategies for Consideration to
Administrative Processes

International Consortium of Investigative Journalists agency
has plans for administrative ethics, leadership, and legal to improve the
agency’s operation and its primary recipients. Some of these major plans
include making sure that they work in accordance with their set principles in
doing their work. This can be done by upholding ethics in business, which
entails serving their clients fully if they maintain the set guidelines without
fear or favor of those who occupy this political leadership positions in the
government(Korte, 2013). In terms of leadership, they should employ people on
merit to get the best suitable persons for the job. On terms of the legal
basis, they should operate within the stipulated constitution to avoid
confusion. In case, of threats from the political leaders, legal measures
should be taken.

Recommendations for Improvements to
Administrative Processes

In order to achieve change serious recommendations need to be
set in place to achieve change. The first recommendation is to create some
sense of independence. International Consortium of Investigative Journalists
agency needs to develop some independence in doing their work since this
reduces the chances of political intervention in doing their affairs in doing
their business.

The second recommendation is ensuring that the interests of
the clients come first before anything else. It is important for agencies to
understand that clients are of the prime significance and they mainly help the
organization in their operations. Therefore, they should not consider too much
the political leaders in doing their business. Instead they should focus on
customer satisfaction and profitability.

Provide proof of one to two (1-2)
interviews by submitting the completed interview form

with a list of questions for and
responses from each interviewee. (Put this in the Appendix

under Interview Forms.)

First interview

1: Are agencies independent?

1:  No, they tend to be interfered by the
political leaders and they affect them negatively.

2: What are some of the recommendation can you give to these agencies like
International Consortium of Investigative Journalists agency in this case?

2: My advice would be that, they should venture in serious independent business
free from any kind of interference.

Second interview 

1: Are agencies independent?

1:  Yes, they are there to do business
and they have freedom to choose whatever they want to do provided they get
desired profits.

2: What are some of the recommendation can you give to these agencies like
International Consortium of Investigative Journalists agency in this case?

2: They should continue doing their business normally.


Lundgren, R. E., & McMakin, A. H.
(2013). Risk communication: A handbook for communicating environmental, safety,
and health risks. John Wiley & Sons.

Edwards, B. (2013). Program
Evaluation Plan for the Perpich Center for Arts Education Governance,
Administration, Financial and Performance Structures (Doctoral dissertation,
Hubert H. Humphrey School of Public Affairs).

Trillo, S. L. (2015). Cross-sectorial
policy coalitions: a case study of Sustain Ontario: the Alliance for Healthy
Food and Farming’s efforts to reform public policy. How a policy coalition’s
choices contributed to its legitimacy and influence (Doctoral dissertation,
York University Toronto).

Korte, N. (2013). The Political
Economy of Public Administration Reforms in Southeast Asia (Doctoral
dissertation, University of Hamburg).

Assignment #4 Centre of Medicare and Medicaid Services

Human Resource Process

  After analyzing and evaluating the
Medicare and Medicaid agency, I managed to come out with some components in
which the agency has to employ for it to hire and retain a diverse workforce.
Hiring is the first process to be carried out. If the company is serious about
implementing diversity, it must create a diverse pool of candidates. Employing
from the same place always, using the same methods, the result will always be
the same people.   To be
competitive in today’s market creativity is of an essence. One needs to go
where the candidates are and have a long time with them so as to get good

  One of the major components of hiring
employees is by carrying out a research and developing a list of colleges that
historically has scores of people from various backgrounds and sending a team
to that particular school to conduct recruitment.

  Begin hiring from the middle class and high
school it is important for the agency to attend career days and be ready to
discuss the benefits of working for the organization and the industry.

  Contacting various student leaders on
campuses- the company will then ask them to suggest the best candidates or even
help in including notices of the organization in the campuses noticeboards.

  Developing a relationship with different
agencies in the community- this will enable them to know about the
opportunities available in the office.

  To retain a diversified workforce the
company will need to acquire some essential components in maintaining
diversification these include:

  The use of more inclusive languages and
visuals in the rules and is necessary to make sure that no
pronoun is gender based.

  Market the agency diversity initiative
extensively so that people from outside gets the word that a company
environment is a perfect place for everyone to work.

  Creating processes to make everybody feel
welcome and included in the agency.

Implication of Human
Resource Workforce

  The current employment trend in the
organization is that of the aging labor force. This makes the company face a
potential loss because of retirement. Aging can cause labor shortage thus
disrupting the steady supply of energy. The presence of the elderly in the
agency is a significant challenge. There is a minimal growth of the firm
because the aging workforce provides less productivity and fewer savings which
have an adverse impact on the agency. Because of the aging workforce, the
company incurs increased pension benefits and health care cost.

  As the aging of the labor force
increase, the growth of the economic structure of the agency is affected. There
is a shortage of labor due to the aging workforce, increased healthcare needs
and the significant decrease in public and private investments are some of the
negative impacts caused by the aging work force. Expertise, technical
knowledge, and experience are absent in the agency due to the retirement of
senior employees.

  The institution to avoid labor
shortages should retain the aging workforces in doing so the agency would have
also kept knowledge and expertise of the employees. To improve the growth of
the firm strategies such as developing the workforce, alteration of workforce
policies and practices should be implemented to ensure that the senior
employees are retained. Retirement age should be increased and also altering
the retirement incentives to meet the expectations of longevity. Old age
pension agreement should be flexible. These will ensure that the agency’s
products and services are at constant and of the best quality. Training should
be provided to meet the labor shortage and to make sure that profession
development among the senior employees is met.

Succession Planning for
Human Resource Management

  Many organizations fail to address
succession planning in a systematic way. It is mainly because maybe the agency
is facing other organizational challenges which they see as of high priority
than to think of who their next manager will be. In succession planning some of
the required managerial skills to be considered include:

  Knowledgeable- the person chosen to succeed
the outgoing manager should have vast knowledge about the agency he/she should
know how the organization functions and the crucial parts of the company such
as finance. These will ensure that even after the outgoing manager leaves the
agency will continue working properly. When a chosen person has knowledge of
the body, he/she will understand the employees much better and help improve the
areas where he/she had seen flaws. By doing this, the firm will develop its

  Quality- the person chosen should have the
required quality for a managerial job. These will ensure that he or she can be
able to make certain crucial decisions necessary for the betterment of the
agency.  Such that in the case of
employment or off-loading workers the manager will be doing so that the
organization can benefit from the decision.

  Desirable-in order for one to be chosen for
the managerial position the person must have the desire to take the big step.
He/she should be self-motivated and have the self-belief that it is possible to
run the firm. A desirable person is always ambitious, and his or her priority
always is on the welfare of the company.

  A recommendation of succession plan
has much importance. A succession plan is a means of making sure that the
agency is prepared with a scheme to support service continuity when the manager
or key people in the organization leave. There is a continuous supply of
qualified individuals who are ready to take over in case the manager leaves the
institution. A good succession plan acts as an alignment between the agency
vision and the human resource that shows an understanding of the need to have
proper staffing to achieve strategic plans.

  It also brings a commitment to developing
a career path for employees who will ensure the organization has an ability to
recruit and retain top performing employees. The agency will gain an outside
reputation for investing and providing opportunities to its people and also
support advancement. Carrying out the plan also helps in passing a message to
the employees that they are valuable.

  For the agency to implement programs
in preparation for the above skills which are not visible in the office’s
workforce as a method of promotion and current employee’s advancement, the
agency needs to:

  Identify that person who is always in
collaboration with the manager.

  Develop a plan that the eventual successor
acquires the required skills and knowledge to take the job after the manager

  Ensure that the chosen individual is
exposed to a broad range of experiences so that the person will understand
wider the operation of the agency.

  The organization plan may include
formal mentoring and training in more specific aspects of the position. More
than one person should be identified so as to rate the different level of
competence in the areas.

Job analysis and design

Administrative Consultant

Human Resources

  As a consultant, I advise the
management of the Medicare agency on the administration of the human resources
policies and the procedures. It is part of my job also to serve as an internal
consultant to analyze the company’s current HR programs and recommend solutions
to the organization. As part of my work I develop, analyze and implement human
resource policies and procedures for the agency. I also ensure that HR programs
and services are in compliance with the established policies and procedures.
Preparing and maintain reports related to specific HR project is also my job. I
help the agency with ideas on the development and coordination of recommended
changes concerning workflow. It is my duty to provide training sessions related
to specific HR programs.

  For one to be an administrative
consultant he/she must have some specifications to be compliant with the job.
This includes:

  Self –confidence- every consultant must be
sure about themselves for them to be able to impact wisdom and knowledge to
others without a doubt. The self –confidence will be measured by the outcome of
the decision made as a result of the piece of knowledge you gave out. If the
advice you gave out had no self-confidence in what you were saying, then it
means you were not sure and hence poor results thus one will be evaluated as an
underperformer and vice-versa.

  Trustworthy- it is important for an
administrative consultant to have a strong bond with their clients.  These are acquired by displaying one’s
integrity to obtain trust.  Confidence is
always evaluated when the customer can come for pieces of advice from the
consultant on a crucial matter. If the client consults you and fails to return
but rather choose to look for another specialist, then it will only mean that
there is no trust at all in your consultancy.

  Excellent listening skills- to be evaluated
as a performer an administrative consultant should always fully understand the
problems by listening carefully to the needs of their clients before coming up
with solutions

  The agency, using the executive
consultant post will ensure that the organization’s human capital serves the
best interests of the company. This is by creating and developing a human
resources model specific for the group. Also, the post will ensure that the
agency effectively uses its personnel to achieve its stated goals while also
ensuring the workforce is productive and efficient.

  Administrative consultant post might
be employed by the agency to establish company policies and procedures and
ensure that they are complying with applicable laws concerning their employees.


Armstrong, M., & Taylor, S. (2014). Armstrong’s
handbook of human resource management practice. Kogan Page Publishers

Baird, L., & Meshoulam, I. (1988). Managing two
fits of strategic human resource management. Academy of Management review,
13(1), 116-128.

Delery, J. E., & Doty, D. H. (1996). Modes of
theorizing in strategic human resource management: Tests of universalistic,
contingency, and configurational performance predictions. Academy of management
Journal, 39(4), 802-835.

Gist, M. E. (1987). Self-efficacy: Implications for
organizational behavior and human resource management. Academy of management
review, 12(3), 472-485.

Assignment # 5

on Health and Human Services FY2012 Budget Analysis


  The department of Health Human
Services (HHS) is the principal Federal Agency tasked with protection of the
Health of all the Americans and equally providing essential Human services. The
main subcommittee with the jurisdiction over the HHS federal budget is the
House Appropriations Subcommittee. The House and the senate committee are
tasked with the review of the budget requests and they can accept it, slash it
o review it upwards.

President requested a discretionary budget of $79.9 billion for the Department
of Health and Human Services (HHS) for FY 2012. This value represented a $72
million decrease or 0.09 percent reduction decrease compared to the FY 2010.
The budget request would include funding for two major pieces of legislation
that passed in the 11th Congress, including the Food Safety Modernization Act,
which would be overseen by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), also known as the healthcare
reform law. The stated priorities in the President’s FY 2012 budget for HHS and
its offices included: 

Implementation of the healthcare reform

Investing in America’s competitiveness
through funding for biomedical research;

Strengthening of the health professions
workforce through training of primary care providers; and

Continuing enhanced support for
high-quality early childhood programs by investing in others to assist
vulnerable populations (Purdy, 2007).

part of HHS efforts to enhance health care, the budget request highlighted the
activities at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) focused on the
translation of discoveries into therapeutics and drugs and the importance of
creating collaborations among government and other agencies to accelerate the
development of treatments. Healthcare reform implementation remains an administration
priority. To ensure there are primary care providers to care for the
anticipated growth of patients enrolling in a healthcare plan by 2015, the
budget would invest in the healthcare workforce by providing increased
resources for providers who choose to serve in underserved areas. Additionally,
it would prevent cuts in payments to physicians, which they are currently
facing through the Sustainable Growth Rate Formula (SGR) for the next two years
while committing to work with the Congress towards a long-term permanent fix
(Purdy, 2007).


departments such as HHS are highly influenced by political factors especially
in regard to their budgeting process. As outlined, the financing process is
dependent on the political process that runs the allocation. The political
climate in the state is equally important in enhancing the smooth process or
equally undermining the success of departments.

department’s budget outlays revealed some of the key political factors that
influence the allocations. First and foremost, political stability is a major
determinant of a successful and operational body. HHS operates in all states in
the nation. The body has established different centers to monitor the state of
health across the regions under centralized control. Through such centers, the
body is able to assess and administer the community living, control substance
abuse and regulate foods and drugs through the FDA. To operate successfully, it
requires that there is political stability and peaceful coexistence across the
nation. I case of political violence, the operations of the agency could be
halted and it would be practically impossible to facilitate its objectives.

  Similarly, the success of HHS relies heavily on the
political will to approve its budgetary requests. As indicated, the
appropriation of the budget is done in by the senate and the congress
committees. This means that in case the members in these positions are
unwilling to approve and review the budget requests, then its operations would
be halted. The body is mandated with ensuring safety of all residents by
fostering healthy and safe living. These objectives are only possible when there
is political will to finance the body. Failure to either approe or review the
budget requirements of the department may imply that the agency would fail in
meeting its corporate responsibilities and objectives.

of budgeting plans and actual expenditures

the proposed budget would make an investment in training primary care
providers, it would eliminate programs such as the Children’s Graduate Medical
Education Program, which funds freestanding children’s hospitals to help them
maintain their graduate medical education programs. The request would provide
funding for several cross-cutting initiatives including comparative
effectiveness research. Additionally, funding would be included in the request
for patient-centered research at the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
(AHRQ) and NIH.

request also includes support for the Administration’s medical counter measures
priorities and includes $665 million for the Biomedical Advanced Research and
Development Authority; $70 million for advancing medical countermeasures at
FDA; and $55 million towards investigators who have promising early stage,
medical countermeasures products, but limited development experience at NIH (Volkow,

budget requests sort to facilitate the operation of different programs within
the department all of which would oversee the enhancement of the welfare of the
citizens. The Indian Health Service required $4.2 million to facilitate the
operations; substance abuse and mental services unit would be allocated $3.4
million as well to meet its activities (Volkow, 2012).

financial allocations to the various departments would be necessary in
facilitating the functionality of the entire agency. In essence, these bodies
are equally important in facilitating the attainment of the agencies objectives
of ensuring a safe and healthy nation.

of foreign policy

  The HHS has operations outside the United States. For
instance the body has an internal department that deals with the Indian Health
services. This implies that policies implemented in other regions where it
operates impose operational implications on the Departments operations. Such
influences may also translate into equal budgetary implications as well. The
department operates centers for disease control and prevention across nations
and goes on to monitor the health status of people travelling into and outside
the U.S. Diplomatic differences may make it impossible for HHS to administer
its practices.

research programs and units of the HHS operate on a global forum. The nature of
the programs and policies formulated are equally influenced and regulated by
external forces outside the department’s control. For instance, international
bodies play a major role in influencing the kind of products and chemicals
used. Besides, these bodies may equally influence the development of programs
such as the regulation of use of some drugs whether medical or not. This implies
that the operations of the HHS are influenced by other external sources outside
beyond which it has no control. The nature of policies adopted and utilized are
thereby required to be within a legal conventional framework to facilitate

requests and recommendations

  The financial analysis showed that the department has
over time implemented new processes, enhanced communication, developed new
guidance and trained personnel on addressing significant long standing issues.
There is a continued financial management system but still there exists some
internal control deficiencies I the financial system and the accounting
systems. Instances of incomplete or insufficient analysis of particular
significant accounts are eminent and these compose the systematic issues that
must be solved continually.

and foremost, there is need for implementation of an integrated financial
management system. Initially, during the FY 2004, HHS embarked on the
implementation of a commercial web-based product that was modified to replace
accounting problems and the numerous accounting sub-systems with a single
modern system (Volkow, 2012). The system was designed to support all the
financial activities and ensure clear recording and financial accountability.
Even though the full implementation of the system is still underway, the
department’s financial managements are way below the Federal Financial
Management Improvement standards. Their current systems do not provide for
effective interrelationships between personnel, hardware, software, controls
and data contained in the systems. This deficiency lower the HHS ability
prepare and report the accurate financial information fast tracking this
process would be highly recommended to improve on the future budget processes.

HHS needs to update its internal control processes. Despite the change in the
control structures over time, the department at the time has not been able to
complete the full update of the procedural manuals that will ensure sufficient
knowledge on financial management consistency and the full adequacy of the
internal controls. HHS utilizes different methods of providing guidance to its
personnel. The guidance is located at different stages of updating and this
makes it confusing for the personnel to locate the most updated trends (Bragg,
2013). Such inconveniences limit the success of its operations and translate
into a loss of resources. The department should centralize the controls and
guidance systems which will in turn translate into improved performance and
better accounting systems.

improvements would be necessary in facilitating the budgeting process and
equally enhance the development of an improved cost accounting and running of
the operations. Placing new systems would be essential in facilitate the
maintenance of a healthy nation.


US government
budget allocations for R&D have fluctuated in recent decades. (2012).

Bragg, S. M.
(2013). Accounting best practices. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Department of
Health and Human Services. (n.d.). Retrieved May 25, 2016, from

Purdy, E. R.
(2007). Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Encyclopedia of
Global Health

Volkow, N.D.,
(2012). Fiscal Year 2012 Budget Request – Testimony before the House
Subcommittee on Labor-HHS-Education Appropriations. PsycEXTRA Dataset.

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